Immunglobulin D(IgD)

Immunglobulins in general are large Y shaped glycoproteins used by the immune system to neutralise pathogenic substances like bacteria and viruses. These in general, are called antigens. In a simple explanation, The antibodies bind to substances called antigens and neutralise them forming a Antigen-Antibody complex, thus presenting them to the other immune system components for destruction. There are 5 types of antibodies (A, D, E, M, G). They are differentiated by their properties of their site of secretion and functions. IgA,: Found in mucosa of gut, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, saliva, tears and breast milk. They prevent colonization of pathogens. IgD: Found in blood. They activate immune system cells like basoplhils and mast cells to produce antimicrobial factors. IgE: Found in blood . They are involved in allergy. They bind to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells and basophills. They also function in protecting against parasitic worms. IgM: Found on the surface of B Cells of immune system to activate antibody based immunity. before there is IgG sufficiently. It regulates the early stage immunity mediated by B Cells. IgG: It is the main immune component of antibody response. It is the only antibody to cross the placenta. They are the antibodies protecting the body from remembering which germs one is exposed before.
Interpretation:The clinican may order one or more of the immunglobulin tests, if the patient has symptoms related to the site, infection onset and functions of the immunglobulin types. Thus, they get a snapshot of the source, the immune response and stage of the infection (especially sinuses, lungs, stomach or intestines. The symtoms of the patient may be diarrhea, unexplained weight loss, fevers, skin rashes, allergies, sickness after traveling, Aids, Multiple Myeloma , chronic infections, liver diseases, cancer , diabetes, kidney diseases and/or many other immune condutions that need to be monitored.
Sample: Arm vein blood, CSF (Consult the laboratory)
Working day: Everyday
Result Time: Next day 6:00 PM