Liver Function

Total Protein: It is the sum of proteins in the blood. A large part of the proteins is generated in the liver cells. These proteins are immune system proteins (antibodies), metal-binding proteins, hormones and hormone-binding proteins, enzymes, proteins that regulate the body’s osmotic pressure balance, and the like. Its deficiencies indicate liver failure, and its excesses indicate that one or more specific proteins in the blood are pathologically high, and the cause should be investigated.

Albumin: It makes up most of the total proteins in the blood. It is generated in the liver. Its most important task is to prevent fluid flow out of the vessel by maintaining the blood pressure inside the vessel (oncotic pressure). In other words, it provides a balance between blood and tissue fluids. It is the primary protein of body secretions (such as saliva, tears, bile secretion). Moreover, some molecules are carried by albumin in the blood. Fatty acids and steroid hormones are some examples of these. In its deficiency, the transport of these substances and the balance of body fluids are disturbed. Edema occurs.

Globulin: It is a group of proteins belonging to the body’s defense system. It is also called immunoglobulins. If the body is fighting a disease for some reason, the globulin fraction generally increases. According to the type of the disease, the clinic is directed to investigate its subtypes. In case of an increase, detailed studies are carried out for cancer diseases, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases and allergic reactions.

Total Bilirubin:  This protein, which is responsible for the transport of oxygen in the red blood cells (erythrocyte, red blood cell), passes into the blood when the life of the erythrocyte is depleted and broken down. It is converted to the form to be excreted in the urine in the liver and excreted. In liver failure, the amount of it in the blood rises. In addition, in the case of lysis of erythrocytes more than usual, which also causes some erythrocyte diseases (such as anemias and similar disorders), it increases in the blood. Its amount is also high in diseases that affect the liver, such as hepatitis (jaundice).

Direct Bilirubin: It is the form of total bilirubin that is excreted in the urine by changing its structure in the liver. This parameter is an indicator that the liver is able to perform the excretion process adequately. In other words, if there is an increase in bilirubin, but the direct bilirubin is normal, this indicates that the increase is due to blood disease, not the liver disease. It is the type of bilirubin seen in the urine. It is increased in the blood when there is an obstruction in the bile ducts or other gallbladder diseases.

Indirect Bilirubin: It is the part of total bilirubin that has not yet reached the liver after the erythrocytes have been broken down and have not been made ready to be excreted in the urine in the liver. This parameter indicates whether the liver is able to adequately absorb the bilirubin and completely excrete it in the urine. For this reason, when evaluated with total bilirubin to understand a deficiency in the liver, it provides information about the cause of bilirubin increase.

ALT (Alanine Transaminase, SGPT): It is an enzyme related to protein metabolism found in the liver, heart, and, less specifically, in other organs. However, since it is mainly found in the liver cell membrane, it is the first enzyme that provides a response and therefore gives the first information in case the liver cell is worn out by any disease factor.

AST (Aspartate Transaminase, SGOT): It is an enzyme related to protein metabolism found in the liver, heart, and, less specifically, in other organs. However, since it is mainly found in the liver cells, if the liver is fighting viruses, diseases, or toxic substances, the wear of the cells increases when the liver gets tired, and this substance rises in the blood. When it decreases, the liver’s ability to produce this enzyme becomes exhausted.

GGT (Gamma Glutamyl Transferase): It is the enzyme that has the task of detoxification (detoxication) between the liver and bile ducts. It is responsible for removing any chemicals, alcohol, drugs, or toxic metabolic wastes from the liver through the bile and excreting them through the urinary tract. If it is high, it is understood that there are metabolic problems in the liver and that the person is in touch with toxic substances. Excessive consumption of alcohol, caffeine, drugs, and similar substances also causes an increase in this enzyme.

ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase): It is an enzyme found in the bile ducts and gallbladder. While any dysfunction in the liver increases the activity of this enzyme, gallbladder diseases and obstructions in the bile ducts for various reasons also increase this enzyme.

HBsAg (Hepatitis B Virus Antigen): Hepatitis B is a virus that wears down the liver too much compared to other types of hepatitis, is very difficult to treat, and has a lasting effect. It is effortless to transmit, and the virus can be easily removed from an active person through blood and blood products. It can be transmitted by various factors such as hairdressers and barber salons, manicure procedures, injectors, and sexual intercourse. In other words, it is possible to be transmitted in any way that comes into contact with the blood of someone with hepatitis B virus and causes it to mix with one’s own blood. Hepatitis B is protected by the immune system, sometimes without being felt by the person. Therefore, there are many people in the community who have the DNA of this virus as carriers, even if they are not active. Therefore, getting the virus is a very close possibility. For this reason, every individual should take this test in order not to harm their environment and themselves.