Triglyceride (TG)

Triglycerides are composed of a glycerol 3 phosphate molecule and three fatty acid chains. Triglicerydes are a type of fat, composed of long or short fatty acid chains. It is the most common fat in the body. TG is the fat storage of the body. They are either synthesized by the body (lipogenesis), or taken in food. Because a lot of energy is needed to synthesize triglycerides, the body prefers to store the TG taken in the food. Triglycerides are the types of fat that is burned to obtain energy which is inadequate, when there is glucose depletion. The body burns carbohydrates easily, so it prefers to obtain its energy need from carbohyrates, as the primary source. Therefore, triglycerides taken in the food is at first preferred to be stored. This storage occurs in the adipose tissue and if it is not burned by the lack of exercise and there is an excess of TG overwhelming the adipose tissue capacity, then other tissues especially liver, becomes fatty and this impairs its functions.
Triglycerides in the liver are either oxidized for enegy need or transported to the other tissues in Very Low Density (VLDL) Lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are the molecules which are composed of a protein (Apoprotein) and lipid to become Lipoprotein, turning into a soluble molecule to be transported via blood to the tissues. VLDL rich in triglycerides, degraded to LDL in the blood after leaving its triglyceride content to the tissues. By this way, it becomes a cholesterol rich Lipoprotein (LDL), carrying cholesterol to the tissues. LDL is not good for health, especially if its cholesterol content accumulates in blood vessel linings causing plaques. This is a life threatening situation, sometimes obstructing the blood flow of the limbs, brain, heart and other tissues. Leaving the tissues in an oxygen depleted situation (ischemia).
The end product of triglyceride oxidation is ketone bodies which are acidic and in overfasting, these acid molecules may cause problems in the body (Acetoacetate, Beta hydroxybutirate and acetone).
Alcohol ingestion, results with triglyceride deposition and if this overcomes the detoxification of alcohol, triglycerides are deposited in the liver , leading to fatty liver , impairing liver functions and causing hypertriglyceridemia.
Interpretation:If the triglycerides are high in blood(hypertriglyceridemia), they cause hardening of the arteries or thickening the artery walls(arteriosclerosis) which increase the risk of stroke, heart attack and heart diseases. They also cause inflamation in pancreas(pancreatits), leading to impaired glucose metabolism. Hypertriglyceridemia also cause too much waist fat, high blood pressure, high blood sugar and abnormal cholesterol levels. It causes Diabetes 2 or prediabetes, metabolic syndrome (very high blood pressure,obesity and low thyroid hormones. The cause of hypertriglyceridemia may be overfeeding, diabetes, hypothyroidism, alcohol consumption, lack of excersize. There is also a disorder called familial hypertriglyceridemia, where (Type IV) VLDL proteins are overproduced from the liver. This may be because of inactivation or deficiency of liopprotein lipase enzyme, which metabolizes lipoprotein molecules and clear the blood from triglycerides.
Sample: Arm vein blood. Fasting
Working day: Everyday
Result Time: Same day 2 hours