Cholesterol is a type of lipid which is a component of all cells in the body. It is the precursor of some hormones and Vitamin D. It is also a very important component of the cell membrane.
Cholesterol is not only ingested in foods but it can be synthesized in the body. It is found in foods from animal source (egg yolk,meat and milk products, shellfish).
Cholesterol cannot be transported in the blood to the other tissues without binding proteins called Apoproteins because it is not a soluble molecule. When bound, the comlex is called the Apolipoprotein (Lipoprotein). According to the cholesterol content and the place of synthesis, Apoproteins are classifies as High Density Lipoprotein (HDL=Good cholesterol), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL=Bad Cholesterol), Very Low Density Lipoprotein(VLDL).
HDL Chosesterol is called the ‘good cholesterol’ because the molecule as a lipoprotein has the ability to bind cholesterol molecules accumulated in other tissues especially the blood vessels to the liver where it is metabolise.
LDL Cholesterol is called the ‘bad cholesterol’ because it contains the cholesterol prepared by the liver in VLDL lipoprotein (including mainly triglycerides and cholesterol)l and turns into LDL which takes cholesterol to the tissues also to the blood vessels. There, it accumulates to create a risk for plaque formation.
Total Cholesterol includes all the cholesterol in lipoproteins.
Interpretation:High cholesterol may be due to; unhealthy eating habbits like saturated fats (in meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, deep fried foods and processed foods), in which cholesterol content is not easily metabolised and oxidized to easily attach to the vessel linings (LDL cholesterol) Lack of physical activity with lots of sitting. In this way, triglycerides are not oxidized and more VLDL is produced in the liver to turn into LDL(the bad cholesterol).Triglyceride is the type of fat which is used for energy when there is energy deprivation.lack of exercise also reduces HDL whic is needed for collecting cholesterol from the tissues. Smoking decreases HDL and increases LDL cholesterol. Smoking also oxidizes cholesterol to become more easily sticked to the vessel walls. Alcohol increases triglycerides and therefore VLDL release is increased from the liver thus turning into LDL which is taken to the tissues. If there is large plaque deposit in the arteries this causes blood clot forming on the surface of the plaque and as it gets larger and causes obstruction of the coronary arteries, the blood flow decreases causing angına (chest pain) or heart attack. Plaque may also build up in the arteries of limbs and other organs. This also causes depletion of the oxygen carried by those arteries leading to impairment of the functions of the organs. The first precaution to drop the high cholesterol is to change the life style but if there is a genetic disorder (familial hypercholesterolemia) causing high cholesterol then some cholesterol reducing treatments(statins) are given by the doctor.
Sample: Arm vein blood. Fasting
Working day: Everyday
Result Time: Same day 2 hours