Cancer Markers
(Tumor Markers)

CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen): Tumor Marker is a special protein that is released from the tumor cell and belongs only to the structure of that tumor. Although there are proteins in the blood that have a similar reaction under ordinary conditions, a tumor marker can be elevated in the blood, often specific to benign or malignant cancer tissue. CEA is a group of glycoproteins that allow cells to stick together (for recognition). Healthy people have very small amounts in their blood. However, due to increased cell proliferation in various types of cancer, it rises in the blood due to tumor formation and tissue thickening (hyperplasia). CEA is also elevated in heavy smokers. It can be elevated in all types of cancer; however, it reaches its highest value in colon cancer. Tumor markers are very diverse. However, since CEA rises in all cancer types, it is a good screening indicator to draw attention to cancer.

Tumor markers specific to women:

  • CA 125: Benign or malignant tumor marker that can be elevated in the ovarian, endometrial, and fallopian cancer tubes
  • CA 15-3: The type of marker that can be elevated, especially in breast cancers
  • CA 19-9: The type of marker that can be elevated, especially in ovarian and gastrointestinal system cancers.

Tumor markers specific to men:

  • PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen): It increases in the blood as a determinant in the enlargement of the prostate gland, benign or malignant prostate tumors. When it is high in the blood, the subject should be investigated by a urology specialist, and it should be determined whether there is cancer with tests such as fPSA and biopsy.