Calcium (Ca++): It is a vital mineral in many parts of the metabolism. Minerals are highly active due to the signaling and transport of many molecules and hormones between and within the cell, the electrical balance of nerve cells, the functioning of muscles, and their involvement in bone and tooth structure. In its deficiency, bone resorption, problems in neural activity, and disruptions in many cellular events are seen. Its deficiency results in osteomalacia. In excess, it causes calcium oxalate stones in the kidney. Therefore, the excess must be excreted in the urine. The ratio of phosphorus and calcium in the blood must be compatible.

Phosphorus (P): Phosphorus is bound to ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the primary energy molecule. Its task is to provide energy by giving the energy it has trapped in its bonds to the environment in every part of the body that needs energy. Phosphorus deficiency causes severe fatigue and disturbances in all metabolic reactions.

Iron (Fe): Iron is the molecule that carries oxygen in the body. It is bound to the erythrocyte’s hemoglobin and can bind four molecules of oxygen when we breathe in the lungs. Since oxygen is the body’s energy source, iron deficiency causes weakness, and metabolism slows down.

Total Iron-Binding Capacity (TIBC): Iron absorbed from the intestine cannot enter hemoglobin immediately. First, it binds to a protein called transferrin and is transported in this way until it is included in the structure of hemoglobin. If iron is low in the blood, the amount of this protein rises to bind more iron. If iron is normal or high in the blood, it falls. Its task is to maintain the level of iron in the blood. Its deficiency causes anemia, and it is thought that there is a defect in producing this protein.

Unsaturated Iron-Binding Capacity (UIBC): It indicates the remaining capacity to bind more iron in the blood. It is the expression of iron-binding capacity as saturation. It shows how many percent of transferrin, the iron-binding protein, is saturated with iron content. It should be evaluated together with the binding capacity of iron and the amount of iron.

Magnesium (Mg): Along with other minerals, it regulates nerve stimulation and muscle contractions. It also converts many enzymes involved in energy metabolism into active forms. It is found in erythrocytes in the blood. It plays a role in the energy metabolism of the cell. It is an activator of many enzymes. Without magnesium, there will be no metabolic reaction performed by this enzyme. Hypomagnesemia (magnesium deficiency) is seen in renal failure, diabetic coma, hypothyroidism, and Addison’s disease. Hypermagnesemia (magnesium excess) is experienced in digestive system diseases, kidney, hormonal and metabolic diseases, and pancreatitis.

Zinc (Zn): Zinc is a mineral that takes part in many functions in the body. Protein synthesis is vital for growth and sexual development, as well as for the immune system. It performs crucial roles in situations where the body needs to heal itself and regenerate and in mental functions. It prevents premature aging of the skin and muscles. Supporting cell regeneration beautifies the skin, strengthens nails, and prevents hair loss. In zinc deficiency, the immune system weakens, and symptoms such as exhaustion, delayed healing of wounds, weakening and shedding hair are observed. In addition, growth retardation, loss of appetite, and learning and attention deficit can be observed. Moreover, zinc deficiency causes sexual growth retardation in children and low sperm count in adults. Whitening of nails is one of the symptoms of zinc deficiency. Loss of nutritional value due to improper cooking, alcohol, and stress are the main factors causing zinc deficiency. Zinc excess can cause problems such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, restlessness, sweating, tremble, and cholesterol imbalance. In addition, it causes weakening of the immune system and tumor formation in excessive use.